Contemporary research on the history of science is increasingly emphasizing the interaction between science, technology and society. The history of science with mathematics as the core has been extensively and in-depth studied, but natural history, which has the longest research tradition in human history, has not yet been obtained More attention. Natural history which as the knowledge accumulated during the long-term interaction between man and nature, provides a new research approach for contemporary scientific history research. It not only emphasizes man’s recording and description for nature, but also reflects human’s subjective feelings to nature. This lecture will start with what is natural history, systematically explore the similarities and differences between Chinese and Western natural history traditions, Furthermore, introducing the value and application of historiography of natural history in the study of the history of science.